Background

It has been accepted that housing is a human right since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Such right is included in Article 56 of the Republic of Turkey Constitution as;  "Everybody has the right to live in a healthy and balanced environment" and in Article 57 as;  "Our State shall take measures to meet the housing need within the framework of a plan to observe the characteristics and environmental condition of the cities".

The Mass Housing Law (1984) passed to this end is a framework law defining the fundamental principles, which give direction to the solution of the housing problem in Turkey, particularly on the subjects of organization and funding. The aim of the Law is the provision of public support necessary to meet the housing requirements of our country and fulfilling of necessary service at the hand of an administration organized to this end. The Law also defines the tasks of the Housing Development Administration of the Republic of Turkey (TOKİ).

TOKİ, which is one of the leader institutions in terms of dealing with housing and settlement issues in the country, has acquired essential knowledge and experience on developing different finance models regarding housing production throughout its 37 year-activity period. For its mass housing projects produced on its own lands, TOKİ has the target group of low and middle-income families, who are not able to own housing units within the existing market conditions in the country.

TOKİ has been effective in developing housing technology and housing finance in Turkey between 1984 and 2002, total of 43 thousand 145 houses were produced and credit support was provided for 940 thousand houses within 19 years.

In 2001, the Mass Housing Fund was abolished along with some other public funds. With the elimination of the Fund, the articles related to the revenues, expenditures, duties, authorities and responsibilities of the Administration have been re-arranged and TOKİ's financial position was revised to generate its own financial resources. 

After November 2002 the Government has issued an Emergency Action Plan which was planned to solve the social, economic and administrative problems of the country in parallel with the Government Program.

"The Emergency Action Plan for Housing and Urban Development" was passed on January 1, 2003, setting a five-year goal of 250,000 housing units to be built through renovation, transformation and production of quality housing, by the end of 2007. TOKI aimed to reach the target of starting the constructions of 500 thousand housing units (in cumulative) together with their social facilities by the end of 2011 and this target was reached in the first half of 2011.

Within TOKİ's tasks and duties, various legal arrangements carried out since 2003, for the first time in Turkey's history such a large diameter in a "planned urbanization and housing attack" was launched.

In this context;

• With the closure of Emlak Bank, all the activities other than banking;
• All duties of The Undersecretariat of Housing after its being closed down,
• The duties of Immigrant Houses Coordination Office Ahıska Turks Settlement Coordination Office,
• All duties and responsibilities of National Land Office, upon its being closed down,
• The duties of the abolished Ministry of Public Works and Settlements (Ministry of Environment and Urbanization)-Department of Dwelling Affairs,
• The ongoing duties of the Prime Ministry Project Implementation Unit, after its being closed down;

have been assigned to TOKİ.  With these legal regulations TOKİ's field of activity and project portfolio has expanded to a great extent.

With the amendments made to the Turkish Constitution in July 2018, the "Presidential Governmental System" has been adopted in Turkey. Continuing its activities as a subsidiary of the Prime Ministry, TOKİ is attached to the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change. (Pursuant to Decree Law No. 703 of 9 July 2018)

Within the scope of the "Planned Urbanization and Housing Development Mobilization" of the Governments of the Republic of Turkey, within the framework of TOKİ's field of activity 1.062.676  housing units' productions in 81 provinces have been given start at 4.834  construction sites since 2003 (as of January 18, 2022)