TOKI produces mass housing projects in order to solve the housing problem of the low and middle income groups that cannot own housing under the current market conditions in line with the production area and activity targets defined by the Mass Housing Law and the Government Programs. With the housing projects of TOKI, the sales prices and re-payment conditions that are appropriate to the income and saving patterns of the target groups that cannot be reached by the applications of the private sector are presented.
The beneficiaries of the social type housing projects built on TOKI's own lands make their down payments at the beginning of the construction period and continue the monthly payments according to the single indexed and long term repayment plans formed by the Administration.
For projects targeting low and middle income groups, the index is the public sector wage index. (The six-month index is determined by the Administration in accordance with the information obtained from the Ministry of Treasury and Finance.)
Monthly installments for the low income groups are increased due to the lowest of the public sector wage index, domestic producers' price index or consumers' price index (inflation indices announced by TURKSTAT) (twice a year) (i.e; variable single-indexed credit system).
The repayment terms of TOKI are determined as 8 - 20 years, depending on the financial means of the target groups.
Implementations of the poor groups' projects are executed under the coordination of TOKI and the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services while TOKI only undertakes construction of the houses in those projects.
Applications and all the following procedures are realized by the concerned social solidarity foundations. These projects seek the condition that the applicant him/herself, his/her spouse and the children under his/her custody have no real estate registered in his/her name with the land registry office. It is necessary that the applicants are not subject to the Social Security Organization. (In housing sales toward the poor groups, there is a condition of residence for the purchaser or his/her family until pay-off of the debt for the contracted house.)
The applications, sales, repayment terms (debiting) and identifying beneficiaries related to the poor group houses are determined by the relevant General Directorate. These houses are delivered to poor citizens also by the relevant General Directorate.
With regard to the applications for low-income group houses, it is also expected that the net monthly household income is 5.500 TL. at most. (Income limit for Istanbul has been determined as 6.000 TL. at most)
The Administration realizes projects using "pre- demand collection method" in order to prevent idleness of investments to be made in projects toward settlements with a population below 40.000. Pre- demand collection method is organized by the Governorships, District Governorships or Municipalities. In case there is sufficient application to the project, housing production is put into practice.
The current demand for housing produced by TOKI largely outpacks supply. Every citizen who does not own a house has the right to apply for social housing. In case the demand exceeds the number of housing provided, rights holders are identified by a draw in the presence of a notary.
Since the property right is owned by TOKI until the debt is over, the repayments of the projects are under guarantee. That is, TOKI is acting as a 'guarantor' for the repayments of the project. TOKI finalizes the construction of housing units within 2 years.
The fact that the title deeds are not issued until full repayment of the debts minimizes the default of payment of installments. Indeed, the rate of non-payment is near to zero in the sales practices realized by the Administration. The rate of termination of the sales contracts/rate of taking back of the houses are also low. (approximately 1/2.000 houses).
TOKI's accounts are with public banks in accordance with the General Communiqué of Public Treasury. The reimbursements for the sales realized and loans made available by TOKI are pursued and collected over public banks (Ziraat Bank and HalkBank) in the name of TOKİ. The collections accumulating in Banks are transferred to the accounts of the Administration within the framework of the protocols with the banks.
In TOKİ projects, the houses are offered for sale at a certain stage after the tender.
Sales prices of the units are set by TOKI, by taking into consideration the cost of construction, social facilities, cost of infrastructure, cost of consultancy services and cost of land.
Sales prices are determined without a profit purpose, in view of the saving patterns and monthly affordability of the target groups.
Construction cost is the sum of building, mechanical, electrical, substructure, and land-scape and ground Improvement etc. costs.
Land prices are not included in the sales prices within the TOKI's social type housing program for the poor citizens.
The fundamental conditions of sale of the social housing projects of TOKİ are as follows:
For low-income group and poor houses (The 20%-40% income group without any means to purchase housing under the current market conditions; having a maximum net income of 5.500 TL., or a maximum net income of 6.000 TL. in Istanbul as the monthly household income )
*For the low income groups; houses with an area of 65 - 87 m2, with installments starting from delivery of the house with a down-payment of 12% and a maturity of 15 years,
*For the low and middle income groups; housing units with area of 87–146 m2, 10% to 25% of the price in advance are offered to our citizens in need with a maturity of 8-10 years.
In TOKI's social housing projects, disadvantaged groups (disabled, martyrs and disabled people, retirees) are given priority in certain ratios.In housing sales realized by lottery:
• Martyr families, War and Duty Invalids and Widows and Orphans are offered quota of 10% of the number of dwellings,
• Citizens with disabilities of at least 40% are offered quota of 5% of the number of dwellings,
• Additionally, retired citizens are offered quota of 25% of the total number of dwellings.
In accordance with the Law no. 7179 of 25/06/2019; in scope of the rights granted to the ones performing their active military service as soldiers, the opportunity to benefit from the housing constructed by TOKI has been provided for those who do not have registered housing.
Because the problem of slums and shanty settlements cannot be solved through the efforts of the local governments only, since 2003 TOKI has been following a comprehensive policy toward supporting modern urbanization in cooperation with local administrations, with the support of the central government.
Within the scope of the Law No.5162 that underlines "the prevention of shanty settlements in our cities in cooperation with local authorities and the transformation of the existing shanty settlements" in the Emergency Action Plan of the program of the 58th. Turkish Government and the regulations adapted in 12.05.2004, TOKI has been assigned to be in service in the urban renewal projects and has been carrying out its projects in this sense.
TOKI's practices constitute a model for local governments and other actors of the housing sector. TOKI not only transforms slums, extremely intensive shanty settlements, areas with a high risk of natural disasters (earthquake, flood, landslide etc.) and historical urban areas as well as urban areas whose economic lifetime is over but also tries to prevent formation of new slum areas with the houses it produced for narrow-income groups.
Renewal projects and not only produce renovated housing areas; but also provide major recreation areas, city parks, city quarters, trade centers for the city.
In this context, major urban transformation projects have been implemented in other cities and districts, particularly in cities with intense population such as Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, Denizli, Uşak, Erzurum, Erzincan, Gaziantep, Trabzon.
By June 2019, within the scope of the major urban renewal program which has been started jointly with the municipalities, 158 projects are actively in progress. 146.804 housing units' constructions have been given start under the title of slum transformation/urban renewal works. Additionally, 83.171 houses' constructions have been completed.
With this program, areas are developed by the Administration where slum clearance is made/to be made by the local managements, and project-based solution suggestions and implementations are implemented after acquisition by the concerned municipality of the proprietorship of the area vatandaşların da katılımı ile in cooperation with the local governments within the scope of relevant laws. Because Urban Renewal Projects require comprehensive study as they include direct participation of the public.
In these projects, it is the main target to rehabilitate the slum, shanty settlement and bedraggled regions of the city by way of most efficient use of the public resources while simultaneously trying to keep the satisfaction of the proprietor citizens and other city dwellers at a maximum.
In the projects, as in our traditional city culture, spatial settlement texture is created by fusing different segments of society and supporting social integration and responding to the needs of all users of the city.
Another important issue is the fact that the projects have horizontal design/construction; not vertical.
However, different income groups can meet in the same neighborhood; attention is paid to the design of social living spaces where neighborhood residents, tradesmen are intertwined and the concept of neighborhood culture is at the forefront
Additionally, prioritizing local architectural acceptance and details in all projects; The culture and values, social habits, lifestyles and climatic characteristics of these regions are also reflected in the architecture of different cities and regions.
TOKI houses use the "tunnel form-work" system with higher building safety which is also earthquake resistant providing smooth geometric spaces and allowing fast and high-quality production, while schools, trade centers, hospitals, mosque, police station, dormitories, stadiums etc. buildings apply conventional formwork systems. Besides, the light steel building systems are preferred in buildings such as village house, village clinic, which are small in number.
TOKI pioneers the efforts of the government to construct houses, substructure and public utilities in regions damaged by natural disasters. The activities of the administration in the field of disaster management and restructuring started with Erzincan Earthquake in 1992. The Administration received the United Nation's "HABITAT Scroll of HONOR" in 1994 for having provided housing credits to hundreds of thousands of low and medium income families and for having implemented the Erzincan Earthquake Reconstruction Project successfully.
After VAN Earthquake, one of the major earthquakes recently realized in Anatolia, 15.000 houses and their social facilities have been completed within a year in Van by the Administration in coordination with the Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) AFAD actively participating in restructuring of the city, and 18 thousand houses were constructed for the beneficiaries. Furthermore, all kinds of support were provided to those willing to build their own house, barn, work place (Houses are produced for disaster regions within the scope of the disaster regions in line with the demand by AFAD. All houses under construction by TOKI are purchased by AFAD.)
With the "Law on Transformation of Places under Disaster Risk" numbered 6306 that took effect for the purpose of demolition of unpermitted/risky buildings with inadequate earthquake-resistant design, material resistance and construction and of restoration of old buildings, urban transformation works spread throughout Turkey and TOKI's duties reached a significant position with entities responsible at implementation level. On legalization of the relevant legislation, comprehensive urban transformation projects were started throughout Turkey with a new era in urban transformation.
TOKI also creates innovative financial models in order to implement government decisions regarding existing housing and settlement policies. The most important model is a financial model which is named as the "income (revenue) sharing model" which provides housings to high income groups, in order to establish a fund for housing projects of low and middle income groups. This model is based on housing production on TOKI owned lands in provinces like İstanbul and Ankara, in collaboration with the private sector and on sharing the sales income with the private partner. (This is a build-sell model and this concept is based on income - not housing.) TOKI developed this model to close the gap between its short-term investment expenses and its long-term receivables.
The other activities are mainly the "agricultural village projects", "migrant dwellings", "restoration of buildings of historical-cultural importance", " housing loans for martry families and victims of war".
In accordance with the Law on Preservation of Cultural and Natural Assets numbered 2863, TOKI grants loans for maintenance, repair and restoration of the registered immovable cultural assets requiring protection owned by real persons and legal entities subject to private law, and an amount of 88.524.054,68 TL. loan has been allocated to a total of 814 projects as of 2019 August. Additionally, restoration of 656 historic buildings is finalized.
Another loan implementation of TOKI is the one for martyr families and terror casualties.
The first implementation of the Interest-Free Housing Loan for Martyr Families, Terror Casualties and Widows and Orphans from the Housing Development Fund has been initiated in 1985 by adding an article to the Law on Duties and Liabilities of Police, extending 5.000.000TL. interest-free loan from the Housing Development Fund to the families of martyred policemen as of 1.1.1971. The scope of the loan was expanded by addition of an article to the Housing Development Law in 1991, and it has been ensured that all martyr families and terror & duty casualties and widows and orphans of them with salary from the Pension Fund and acquiring a Beneficiary Certificate for Interest-Free Loan also benefit from the same.
Within the scope of this regulation, 1.170.634.635,74 TL. of loan was made available by TOKI to 24.223 martyr relatives as of 2019 August.
TOKI's social (affordable) housing program includes producing all the social facilities within the projects. TOKI also invests a great of effort in infrastructure (roads, water lines, etc.) Landscaping is provided for the projects.
In addition to this, construction experience of the Administration has been actively employed in many social practices such as health, education, security, lodging, sports facilities, care centres for homeless children and dormitories where needed, especially in the recent years within the protocols signed with various ministries, state institutions and organizations.In this sense, TOKI is in charge of constructing health, education sports facilities in the areas where needed, care centers, military lodgings, police stations and public buildings within the scope of the protocols signed with various institutions.